Explorer Ratings

Explorer Ratings Requirements
1. Fulfill eight of the ten projects within the Rating
2. Participate in one service activity
3. Participate in one outdoor activity
4. Participate in one social activity

Aviation
1. a. Show a group the location, and explain the function of all engine and flight controls in the cockpit of a multi-motor aircraft.
    b. Point out the following on a plane, a model plane, a photography, or diagram, and explain their use: fuselage, cabin, cockpit, landing gear, struts, wheels, wheel pants, brakes, skis, engine, cowling, spinner, propeller, cylinders, wings; camber, leading and trailing edges, ailerons, flaps, slots, empennage, fin, rudder, elevator, tabs, stabilizer.
    c. Make a rough diagram distinguishing between land plane, seaplane, flying boat, amphibian, autogyro, helicopter.
2. Build a six-inch airfoil wing section of 5-inch chord and high light cambers, mount and demonstrate with it the principle of lift; submit with explanations, a rough diagram used in explaining the positive force of thrust and lift and the negative forces of gravity and drag.
3. a. Present a list of the principal air traffic rules and give reasons for them.  Explain the international aircraft numbering code.
    b. Develop fixed cost and operating cost for some horsepower class airplane, including depreciation maintenance cost, repair, hanger, etc.
    c. Read the signs and symbols on an airway map.
4. Explain the international code for identifying aircraft as to type and nation, including the identification letter for at least three nations.  Explain the special problems in international air transportation when an airplane passes from country to country in a few hours, e.g. arrangements with other countries to fly to their territory, immigration customs, public health requirements, language difference, differences in social customs and commercial practices.
5. a. Draw and explain a wind triangle diagram to show how to obtain heading and ground speed when given: course, airspeed, wind direction and wind speed.
    b. Explain the general differences between locating position by pilotage, dead reckoning, radio aides, and celestial observations.  Demonstrate how to file a flight plan, including an alternate airport problem.
6. Using a sectional aeronautical chart, plot a triangular course with one leg at least 60 miles long, and figure magnetic headings, estimated times over well chosen check points, flying at a given airspeed with a given wind direction and speed.  Explain the problem and the solution to a group, bring out the major reasons for choosing the flight altitude of each leg and the choice of particular check points.
7. Describe the following aerobatics maneuvers: loop, chandelle, wingover, snap roll, alling lead, slow roll, Immelmann, whip stall.  Or have completed two hours of flight in accordance with the Explorer regulations.
8. a. Describe, using diagrams or rough sketches, the functions of at least five engine control instruments; and list and explain some instrument errors which may occur in the use of altimeter, air speed indicator and magnetic compass.
    b. Draw, repair, or take down and reassemble a carburetor.
    c. Using cutaway diagrams or actual propellers, show contrasting functioning of a controllable pitch and a constant speed propeller, including mechanical principles involved; or assist in repair or reassembling of either type of propeller.
9. Serve as apprentice or helper to a licensed aircraft or engine mechanic for at least thirty days full time, or ninety days part time.
10. Take flying lessons up to an including solo flight.

Communications
1. Explain the difference between direct and alternating current; give at least three advantages of each; and demonstrate a method of determining which kind flows in a given circuit. Make a simple electric magnet, and explain its use in a radio, buzzer, and telephone.
2. a. Demonstrate the ability to read and write a weather report, using the US Weather Bureau weather report codes, and teach the code to at least two other people.
    b. Name five methods of US Civil Airway Communications and explain fundamentals of their operation.
3. Know the names of and recognize the International Code flags and describe or demonstrate their use to a Crew or Post.  Explain and demonstrate ship telegraph bell signals aboard ship.
4. Draw a wiring diagram of a simple receiving set for use on short-wave with vacuum tube detector and one stage amplifier.  Use correct symbols and show all essential apparatus, including antenna and telephones.  Describe each detail of apparatus and explain briefly the use of each.   Using the above diagram, explain how this radio receiving set could be made to operate also as a transmitter.
5. Construct a working radio or television receiving set and demonstrate its operation by receiving signals from at least three different stations.
6. Establish a Post or Crew emergency mobilization system with and without the use of a telephone.
7. a. Make your own equipment either for sending or receiving auditory signals by International Morse Code, and
    b. Use this equipment to send entire alphabet from memory.
    c. Demonstrate in the field five ways of signaling to an airplane from the ground in case of emergency.
8. Demonstrate the ability to send and receive by Morse Code at an average speed of not less than fifty letters a minute over a period of not less than ten minutes. Or demonstrate the ability to send and receive by Semaphore Code at an average speed of not less than forty letters a minute over a period of not less than ten minutes.
9.  Exhibit well composed and written (or typewritten) business letter; invitation to a Unit activity; telegrams of congratulations, condolence and a business matter; and list specific information that should be included in a telephone call for a doctor in case of emergency.
10. Qualify as amateur radio operator, or restricted radio telephone operator.

Craft Skills
1. Construct a good model sailboat, showing masts, booms, spars and standard rigging.
2. Build some piece of furniture, equipment, or decoration for the Explorer base, or assist in painting or decorating the base.  Build a permanent fire place, outdoor oven, hotwater shower, or remodel or repair a cabin.
3. a. Make and use a backpacking outfit, pack frame, duffel bag, or basket and a reflector oven.
    b. Make and demonstrate two or more snares and traps such as would be used for securing emergency wilderness food supply.
4. On a hike, with one or more companions, cross a 20 foot or wider ravine, stream or body or water, using ropes, vines, temporary improvised bridge or raft; or build a needed trail bridge or tower.
5. Construct a flying model of original design, using any type of power, and fly it in competition.  Write report on design features that are outstanding.
6. Make and use a sleeping bag or a tent suitable for your climate; or make a pair of skis or snowshoes.
7. Build a complete Crew or Post Camp (full size or model) for display at a fair, exhibition or "Scout Week" window display.
8. Make a complete and authentic Indian costume for ceremonial purposes.
9. Build a canoe, kayak, rowboat, or sailboat.
10. Demonstrate proficiency in type of craftsmanship such as leatherwork, woodwork, metalcraft, basketry, weaving, archery equipment, fishing and hunting gear, etc.

Emergency Skills
1. a. Demonstrate on others and self, how to improvise, on the trail, sterile dressing for stings, burns and other wounds; splints; non-equipement snake-bite treatment, emergency trail handling of shock, heat exhaustion, sunstroke, freezing and poisoning.
    b. On a night hike, demonstrate artificial respiration and five types of emergency splinting and bandaging, done entirely in the dark.
    c. On a hike or in camp demonstrate, over an approved trail, emergency transportation of injured person by one and by two others, including the making of an emergency sling or sledge from poles, ropes, and sticks.
2. Qualify as an Emergency Service Explorer.
3. Demonstrate ability, and be licensed if necessary, to render service as a messenger, or provide transportation with either: Bicycle, Horse, Boat or canoe, Motorcycle, Automobile, Motor Boat, Airplane.
4. Report on what provision is made by your City or County Government to protect health.
5. Demonstrate ability to prepare a menu and a balanced emergency meal, such as would be served in time of disaster, for at least twenty people.
6. In addition to your own help or leadership in some approved community project, report to the Post or Crew on what services, protective and developmental, are carried on by the Local Government primarily for the benefit of youth.
7. Demonstrate familiarity with existing public protective facilities afforded by your community (or county in rural areas) such as Police, Fire, and Communication.  Know addresses, telephone numbers and best way to reach them from different locations.
8. Qualify for the Red Cross or Bureau of Mines Standard First Aid Certification.
9. Qualify as a Red Cross, YMCA, or Scout Life Guard.
10. Demonstrate ability to use a compass, map or chart in an emergency situation sufficiently well to locate a person, object or a designated point on the map.

Navigation
1. Read road, air and topographical maps and waterway charts, and explain latitude and longitude.
2. Be able to give or read compass directions by either the old-fashioned mariner's compass points (32 only) or the azimuth or degree method.  At night make a one mile trip, cross country by compass.
3. Show the relative locations of North and South magnetic poles and the location of the agoni line in the United States.  Explain the differences and relationships between true north, magnetic north, variation and deviation.
4. On a hike, follow a compass course for at least one mile with at least four changes of direction, and submit sketch map of the route.
5. On an expedition or cruise make a sketch map of the trip, showing distances, compass bearings, important features and locations of wild life observed.
6. Using compass and maps, make his way in unfamiliar country (wilderness where possible) through three designated map points, involving a four mile circuit.
7. Explain the difference between locating position by pilotage, dead reckoning, radio aids, and celestial navigation.  Demonstrate use of pelorus and sextant or octant.
8. Draw a road map of at least five miles, showing important features within 1/4 mile of either side and all grades, bridges, and road conditions.
9. Make a map of at least one square mile of terrain showing all customary features including contours.
10. Make a chart of a body of water, lake, bay, inlet, harbor or large river, showing all the customary features, including shore line heights and depths of water.

Outdoor Skills
1. Demonstrate thorough knowledge of your State fish and game laws.
2. a. Find in the field suitable local tinder and wood, and produce and use fires for boiling and broiling.
    b. Find and prepare for meal, cooked or raw, three wild edible plants or fruits.
    c. Read and report on at least one book related to survival, and a description of the necessary preparation for a successful expedition.
3. Participate in some local project concerned with fish, game, soil, or forestry conservation.
4. On three or more overnight hikes, improvise and use three each of emergency packs, beds and shelter.
5. Stalk a wild animal or bird for photographing or for bow and arrow hunting, in season; or track and trail a companion through suitable cover, keeping within sixty to one hundred feet for 1/2 mile without being detected.
6. Alone or with a buddy take and report on a two-day trip through a reasonably sparsely settled and wild territory, carrying only emergency rations and light shelter, living off the country as far as possible.
7. Make a canoe, kayak or rowboat trip of at least one week.
8. Make a one week trail hiking expedition carrying all provisions and equipment in back pack.
9. Make a cruise of at least one week in a boat under power or sail.
10. Demonstrate ability to swim, and the best methods of rescue from water using "throw, row, or go" procedure.

Physical Fitness
1. a. Correct for any remediable physical defects disclosed by medical examination.
    b. Demonstrate reasonable proficiency in at least two physical sports.
2. Earn a letter or numeral as a participant in a High School or College sport or be a regular player on a recognized community or industrial team.
3. On a hike, expedition or cruise, demonstrate on others and self how to improvise sterile dressings, splints, non equipment snakebite treatment, emergency trail handling of shock, heat, exhaustion, sunstroke, freezing, and poisoning.
4. Climb an 18 ft rope hand over hand in not more than 25 seconds.
5. Run a mile in seven minutes or less.
6. High jump 4 1/2 feet; broad jump 16 feet.
7. Master a system of calisthenics and teach it to two or more people.
8. a. Demonstrate purification of water for drinking purposes on the trail.
    b. Know the local public health laws and those of his State.
9. Demonstrate method of providing for the sanitary needs of a Post, Crew or Troop in a temporary camp.
10. Prove physical fitness by carrying out a project requiring at least fifty hours of manual labor.

Seamanship
1. a. Know the elementary rules of safety as they apply to water activity and boats.
    b. Demonstrate use of life jacket, belt, and buoy.
    c. Know all storm warning signals and be familiar with the ordinary weather indications of your locality.
2. a. Identify by classification as to power, hull, rig and use, including modern and obsolete sailing craft.
    b. Know the names of parts of a boat.
3. a. Tie the following knots and hitches: square, slip, bowling, taut line, carrick, fisherman, timber, bowline on a bight, masthead, clove hitch, two half hitches, sheepshank, French or Spanish bowlines,.
    b. Make back splice, eye splice, short splice and long splice.  Whip a rope end.
4. Handle any type of small hand powered craft such as a rowboat or canoe. Command a life boat under oars.
5. Know the history of development of boats and traditions of the sea including--side buoys, bell time and watches, double salute.
6. a. Demonstrate ability to pick up and cast off moorings, and how to anchor and rock a boat.
    b. Know the rules of the road for all types of craft.
7. Identify International Code flags and explain their use.
8. Operate gas, diesel, or steam marine engine and demonstrate knowledge necessary to make minor repairs,  Handle a small powerboat.
9. Rig a small sailboat and adjust for proper balance.  Demonstrate ability to handle a sailboat safely.
10. Repair, rebuild, or refit a boat.

Vocational Exploration.
1. Visit and make a written report on the vocational opportunities in some industry.
2. Explore and report at a meeting of the Post on qualities and preparation needed, as well as the future outlook for a young man in any vocation of your choosing.
3. Compare the three vocations which seem most attractive, and outline in conference with your Advisor, a practical plan a young man might follow to enter any one of them.
4. Confer with three successful business or professional men about the qualifications, opportunities, training, necessary equipment and advantage and disadvantages of their types of occupation.
5. Demonstrate familiarity with the plan of organization and program of your Local Council.
6. Determine the soil conditions of an approved soil area, reporting for what crops it is best suited, and what treatment the soil needed for improved production of one crop and prepare a plan for adequate water supply for such an area, including a summary from Weather Bureau records of the average rainfall expectation.
7. Select and develop proficiency in a hobby which might lead ot an occupation.
8. Take a standard aptitude test to determine the type of training most needed for self-improvement.
9. Carry on a money earning project successfully, such as raising of pigeons, rabbits, poultry, grain, gardens or livestock, or operate a paper route or similar enterprise.
10. Hold a job for thirty days or more, and present evidence of success.

Source: New Explorer Plan and Recogniztions #3217, 9/49