Air Scout Advancement Requirements (1942-46)

Air Scout Apprentice Requirements
I. Be 15 years old
II. Know and put into practice in your daily life the Scout Oath and Law, and know the Scout Motto, Sign, and Salute, and the significance of the Badge and Uniform.
III. Outline the 10 basic rules of air safety
IV. Demonstrate your interest by making at least one model airplane.
V. Know the customary forms of respect to The Flag of the United States and know its history and composition
VI. Demonstrate with ropes the following knots useful in aeronautics: a) three ways to tying two ropes together (square knot, sheet bend and carrick bend); b) three ways of tying rope to an object (slip, timber hitch and pipe hitch); c) a bowline, a barrel sling, and a sheepshank.
VII. Present the written consent of your parents  Present evidence of having an official Senior Scout medical examination.

Air Scout Observer Requirements
I. General Aeronautics
a) Meet the requirements of the Aeronautics Merit Badge
b) Build a flat working model of an internal combustion engine; OR make an Airway Map; OR build and compare two identical simple stick flying models (rubber band), one to be Rise-Off-Ground and the other Rise-Off-Water.
II. Lighter-than-Air Craft
a). Explain with rough diagrams, the chief structural differences between rigid, semi rigid airships, non rigid blimps, free and captive balloons, pointing out the advantages and uses of each.
b) Make a small captive, propeller driven airship for demonstration purposes; OR, demonstrate the Montgoldier experiment with a small captive paper aerostat.
III Airplane Design
a) Meet the requirements of the Airplane Structure Merit Badge
b) Build a working model of airplane controls; OR, make a plane identification wall chart
c) Build a flying model plane, leaving sections uncovered or covered with transparent material to show structural details; OR, build a small indoor rubber band flying model.  Kits may be used.
IV. Airplane Propellers
a) Demonstrate with sketches, or with a model, an understanding of the following terms: blade, hub, tip, diameter, leading edge, trailing edge, blade area, blade element, pitch, slip, thrust, and torque.
b) Explain the general principles and advantages of adjustable, controllable, and constant speed propellers.
c) Carve, for one of your flying models, two new propellers having the same diameter (about 2/5 of the wing span) and approximately the same pitch, but with different blade areas, one 1/10 and the other 1/6 of the wing area.  Test in flight and report.
V. Elements of Aerology
a) Explain why these six basic atmospheric conditions concern a pilot: atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, clouds, winds, precipitation.
b) Identify in the sky, or from photographs and sketches if necessary, the ten forms of clouds in the International Classification grouped in the four classifications: high, middle, low, and vertical.  Describe them.
c) Present rough outline map marking the dense fog areas of the United States
d) Interpret a weather map, with particular reference to the highs, lows, cold and warm fronts.
VI. Air Maps and Charts
a) Explain, with rough sketches, the problem of making an accurate map of the surface areas of the globe.
b) Draw a North Polar equidistant projection map for demonstrating northern air routes
c) Draw a similar South Polar map; OR make a spot map of neighboring airports, using auto road map as base.
d) Interpret the radio beams and symbols on a United States sectional air map.
VII. Airway Communication
a) Explain the five types of US Civil Airway communications maintained.
b) Send and receive a message by International Morse Code auditory, signals at not less than 35 characters per minute.
c) Send and receive a message by International Morse Code visual signals at not less than 20 characters per minute
d) Make own equipment for either (B) or (C).
VIII. Personal Scout and Group Projects
a) Have six month's satisfactory service as an Apprentice Scout, putting into practice in your daily life the Scout Oath and Law and the Scout ideals of service and leadership.
b) Follow an approval personal health program
c) Take part in the meetings and group projects of your Squadron or Patrol
d) Take a cross country hike of at least five miles through territory as near like wilderness as possible, making note of everything an aviator who has been forced down would use to get back to civilization.  Write a report of the trip.

Air Scout Craftsman Requirements
I. History of Aeronautics
Present a list of 10 historical events in Aeronautics which you consider most important, telling in what sense they seem most important.
II. Elements of Aerodynamics
a) Meet the requirements for the Aerodynamics Merit Badge.
b) Measure the relative air resistance of the three airfoils in Requirement 4-a of Aerodynamics Merit Badge, using pulley and weights or suspension and pointers; record and report these measurements; OR
Build one of the following:
 1) An airfoil pressure manometer testing set;
 2) A demonstration wind tunnel, any design;
 3) A model of any historical plane.
III Airplane Design
a). Meet the requirements for the Airplane Design Merit Badge.
b). Make an airplane design wall chart identifying main modern design types.
c) Submit a design analysis of not fewer than five modern planes.
IV. Airplane Engines
a) Prepare rough diagrams contrasting two and four cycle internal combustion engines.
b) Explain with rough sketches various engine cylinder arrangements showing crank-shaft and connecting rod assembly differences
c) Contrast airplanes and automobile engines as to 1) general lubrication, 2) fuel supply systems, including injectors and superchargers, 3) electrical systems
d) Take down and reassemble, or assist in taking down and reassembling, an internal combustion engine- report on the main steps.
V. Airplane Instruments
Explain with rough sketches the operation and use of these six primary flight instruments: tachometer, oil pressure gauge, oil temperature gauge, altimeter, magnetic compass, and airspeed indicator.
VI. Elements of Flight Control
a) Explain the use of controls and desirable engine speed for the following nine initial flight elements: taxing, straight and level flight, turns, climbs, glider, rectangular course, stalls, take-offs, landings.
b) Demonstrate the adjustment of the control surfaces of a flying model in each of these nine flight elements and of a glider where possible.
VII. Radio Communications
a) Meet the requirements for the Electricity Merit Badge.
b) Meet the requirements for the Radio Merit Badge.
VIII. Personal and Group Projects
a) Have six month's satisfactory service as an Observer Air Scout, putting into practice in your daily life the Scout Oath and Law and the Scout ideals of service and leadership.
b) Take part in the meetings and group projects of your Squadron or Patrol, including not fewer than one outdoor, one social, and one service project; continue your approved personal health program.
c) At night, hike from a wilderness spot where an aviator might make a forced landing, travel a distance of not less then five miles finding compass directions by stars in order to arrive at predetermined point.

Air Scout Ace Requirements
I Top Air Records and Types
a) Report the top ceiling, speed and distance air records
b) Identify 25 different airplanes from photographs, models or silhouettes
c) Make a set of silhouette cards for identification game; OR, make one solid model of a plane.
II Applied Aerodynamics- Gliding and Soaring
a) Explain the relation between Chanute's and the Wright's glider experiments and the achievement of power flight.
b) Make one or more light cardboard gliders; determine their glide angle and report; demonstrate the action of thermals.
III Airplane Design Project
Construct a flying model, any type, of original design, explaining the reasons for main design features
IV Gas Model Plane- CAA Inspections
a) Construct and fly a gas model airplane
b) Subject it, before flight, to CAA inspection routine
V Elements of Navigation
a) Tell the conditions of flight which make it difficult to hold a course and the minimum navigation instruments required.
b) List and explain some instrumental errors which may occur in the use of altimeter, airspeed indicator and magnetic compass
c) Explain the general differences between holding a course by pilotage, dead reckoning, radio side and by celestial observations
d) Make a simple sextant and use it to demonstrate the home latitude.
VI. Flight Maneuvers and the Pilot
a) Demonstrate by hand with a model plane or glider the official test and precision maneuvers for the Private Pilot Certificate.
b) Describe the following aerobatics maneuvers: loop, chandelle, wing over, snap roll, falling leaf, slow roll, Immelman, whip stall.
c) Explain the physical effects of altitude and speed maneuvers
d) Meet the requirements for the Personal Health Merit Badge.
VII. CAA Airport and Airway Rules
a) Present a list of the main requirements for certification of a private pilot and for the air worthiness of an aircraft
b) Present list of the principal air traffic rules and give reasons for them.
VIII. Personal and Group Projects.
a) Have six month's satisfactory service as an Craftsman Air Scout, putting into practice in your daily life the Scout Oath and Law and the Scout ideals of service and leadership.
b) Present evidence that your physical examination has been checked according to the CAA standards for Private Pilot Certificate; and meet the requirements for the First Aid Merit Badge.
c) Hold at least two vocational conferences with counselors in life work fields.
d) Make and report on a two-day trip through a reasonably wild and sparsely settled territory, carrying only emergency rations ad light shelter, living of the country as far as possible.

Source: Air Scout Manual, 1943 printing